Letter from Admiral Hormby of the British Royal Navy to his wife describing the "Pig and Potato War" boundary dispute between the US and Britain in 1859 near Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada.
Ms. Clapp moved with her doctor husband to a town in the middle of Gold Rush territory in CA and wrote numerous detailed descriptions to her sister which have become classic references to life during the Gold Rush.
Jay Gould was born a farmer and turned businessman in the mid 1800s. He had a scheme to hike up the price of gold so he and his buddies could sell the gold they had been stockpiling at a huge profit. They convinced President Grant to halt gold sales but when the president realized he had been scammed, he dumped gold into the market which cased "Black Friday" and had terrible effects. Despite it, Gould made a hefty profit.