National Board for Professional Teaching
Standard VI: Integration of Technologies
Accomplished library media specialists use technologies effectively and creatively to support student learning and library media program administration. Technologies include the full range of text, sound, video, and other digital content, as well as the systems for accessing, processing, and communicating information. Technologies also include systematic processes by which accomplished library media specialists plan, coordinate, and use these as tools. Because new technologies often appear first in the library media center, accomplished library media specialists understand the importance of these tools and the role of library media programs in explaining and promoting their effectiveness and innovative uses. As teachers, library media specialists use an array of technologies for instruction. As program administrators, they use technologies to create and support an effective learning environment.
Using Technologies for Teaching and Learning
The promise of technologies for library media programs comes from their potential to support new ways of teaching and learning. Accomplished library media specialists understand how to use various technologies both to support collaboration with colleagues and to design and deliver effective instruction that addresses meaningful learning goals. Specialists support teacher colleagues in exploring creative and innovative uses of technologies to develop new ways of teaching. Specialists encourage these colleagues to approach assignments in ways that advance students’ skills in using technologies to access information and to design and create products that incorporate the latest resources. In their own instruction, library media specialists model best practices for using technologies effectively and imaginatively, in ways that extend students’ abilities to use these technologies to support problem solving and creative thinking. They recognize that the use of technology is driven by instructional objectives.
Accomplished library media specialists, using all appropriate technologies, work collaboratively and independently to design and deliver instruction that addresses the full range of literacies that students must develop to become lifelong learners and productive members of society. Both in their own instruction and in partnership with teachers, specialists tie the use of technologies to instructional goals and integrate information and communication skills into technology-enhanced instruction. Specialists encourage teachers to design instruction and assignments that take advantage of the capabilities of technologies to engage students and facilitate higher-level thinking. For example, accomplished library media specialists might recommend teachers use alternative methods for students’ written reports such as pre-kindergarten students taking digital pictures of shapes throughout the school to reinforce mathematics concepts and secondary students creating a digital presentation to represent a time period or event.
By modeling the use of many technologies and integrating them into their own instruction and the instruction they design and deliver collaboratively, accomplished library media specialists help learners become skilled at finding, organizing, evaluating, and synthesizing information from many sources. They instruct learners in responsible and ethical use of information while engaging in critical thinking, problem solving, reflection, and independent learning. Specialists ensure that students know how to plan and conduct research in various subject areas by accessing, evaluating, and using information in print, non-print, and digital formats in ethical and responsible ways. Specialists help students understand principles of fair use, intellectual freedom, respect for intellectual property, responsible use of social media, and rights and responsibilities of digital citizenship. They create and implement innovative learning activities that engage students in using technologies to support higher-level thinking. For example, the accomplished library media specialist might work with a secondary environmental studies teacher to develop a project that requires students to use mobile computing devices. Students would input data they collected into a graphic organizer to support their analyses, evaluations, and understandings of the content. At the early childhood level, specialists might provide an interactive white-board for students to sort pictures of items that can and cannot be recycled.
Accomplished library media specialists advise students about research strategies and teach them advanced techniques to increase the effectiveness of their searches. Specialists also work with teachers to create strategies that allow students to collaborate with peers locally and globally to create products using various technologies. For example, an accomplished library media specialist might work with a geography class that is organized into student teams to use online communication tools to research topics related to another country, to find and evaluate the most useful resources, and to work collaboratively with a team of peers in that country. Working with the geography teacher, the specialist might help students design and publish a Website about the country that reflects each team member’s learning and each team’s overall understanding of the country. By coordinating activities like these, specialists afford learners opportunities to learn how to use technologies creatively and effectively, which supports them in becoming life-long learners and helps them prepare for future employment in the workforce.
Accomplished library media specialists use technologies as primary tools for differentiating instruction. For example, specialists might use the results from learning inventories and assessments to help teachers select appropriate materials and formats to meet individual students’ diverse learning needs. They work to ensure that all learners are comfortable with technology and are able to use it effectively and creatively. Specialists follow the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act and local codes to locate and use compliant resources. For example, accomplished specialists provide assistive technologies like adapted keyboards, speech-to-text software, and screen-text enlargers to improve access to information for students with visual impairments.
Managing, Maintaining, and Using Technologies for Program Administration
Technologies hold promise for program administration because they greatly enhance the abilities of accomplished library media specialists to plan, develop, implement, manage, and evaluate library media centers and programs. Effective program administration provides a foundation for successful teaching and learning. Technological tools for administration can serve as catalysts for effective instructional programming and higher-level student learning.
Accomplished library media specialists use all available technologies to help create library media centers that are hubs of school communities. Specialists build on current technologies to plan technology-enhanced spaces that attract and invite learners and that showcase available resources and activities. Specialists establish seamless connections between students’ use of technology both in and outside their schools. Library media specialists explain, model, and implement policies regarding the acceptable and equitable use of technologies, and they advocate for and seek access to emerging technologies to advance student learning. For example, accomplished library media specialists might write grant proposals to secure technology tools, such as digital cameras, to circulate for students’ use at home.
In their administrative role, accomplished library media specialists use technologies to gather and analyze data on programs and activities, such as outcomes of collaborative planning and instruction as well as the circulation of materials. For example, a specialist might regularly post online a report on the activities of the library media center that invites comments from the learning community. As technology provides increased access to information resources outside the media center, specialists include evidence of this access and use in their analysis of library media activities. Specialists use these data in the budgeting process to acquire instructional materials that meet the needs of all students. They may generate and share reports with the learning community. For example, an accomplished library media specialist might use the results of an online survey of parents to generate a report to the school board about the need for funding to purchase new books and other resources for the pre-kindergarten program.
Accomplished library media specialists understand technology issues and challenges and provide solutions to problems in a variety of settings. Within the unique environment of the school or district, the specialist uses evidence to make administrative decisions that optimize technology resources and opportunities for the learning community. In some instances, specialists may be sup- ported by a wide array of technical staff; in others, specialists may be expected to fulfill these technical roles. In each situation, specialists leverage their expertise. For example, accomplished library media specialists may provide alternatives to educational Web sites that are blocked by filters, while they continue in their efforts to have those Web sites unblocked. Specialists may also recommend an open-source solution in lieu of a commercial software application that is beyond the capacity of the school’s current hardware.
Accomplished library media specialists use the technology itself to remain current about emerging technologies, learning theories, and teaching techniques. Specialists participate in online professional communities and other technology-based opportunities for professional development. They take advantage of appropriate Web-based conferencing technologies to foster their own learning, and they monitor related opportunities for their teacher colleagues. Accomplished library media specialists provide professional development for teachers and other leaders in the use of technologies for classroom instruction and encourage them to pursue similar online opportunities within their disciplines.
Library Media K-12: National Board for Professional Teaching Standards
I. Knowledge of Students
II. Teaching and Learning
III. Knowledge of Library and Information Studies
VI. Integration of Technologies
VII. Access, Equity, and Diversity
IX. Outreach and Advocacy
X. Reflective Practice
NBPTs 5 Core Competencies
5 CORE COMPETENCIES OF 'WHAT TEACHERS SHOULD KNOW AND BE ABLE TO DO":
The five core propositions explained below serve as the foundation for all National Board standards and assessments. The core propositions define the level of knowl- edge, skills, abilities, and commitments that accomplished teachers demonstrate. Teachers embody all five core propositions in their practices, drawing on various combinations of these skills, applications, and dispositions to promote student learning.
(Taken from the NBPT website -- http://www.nbpts.org/sites/default/files/documents/certificates/NB-Standards/nbpts-certificate-ecya-lm-standards_09.23.13.pdf)
Teachers are committed to students and their learning.
Teachers know the subjects they teach and how to teach those subjects to
Teachers are responsible for managing and monitoring student learning.
Teachers think systematically about their practice and learn from experience.
Teachers are members of learning communities.
Library Media: National Board for Professional Teaching Standards:
The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards has organized the standards for accomplished library media specialists into the following ten standards. The standards have been ordered to facilitate understanding, not to assign priorities. They each describe an important facet of accomplished teaching; they often occur concurrently because of the seamless quality of accomplished practice. These standards serve as the basis for National Board Certification in library media.
Standard I: Knowledge of Students
Accomplished library media specialists understand the academic, personal, and social characteristics of students and relate them to learning.
Standard II: Teaching and Learning
Accomplished library media specialists understand and apply principles and practices of effective teaching in support of student learning.
Standard III: Knowledge of Library and Information Studies
Accomplished library media specialists understand and apply the principles of library and information studies to support student learning and to create an effective, integrated library media program.
Standard IV: Leadership
Accomplished library media specialists are visionary leaders in their schools and in the profession.
Standard V: Administration
Accomplished library media specialists use a range of strategies and techniques to manage and administer effective library media programs.
Standard VI: Integration of Technologies
Accomplished library media specialists use technologies effectively and creatively to support student learning and library media program administration.
Standard VII: Access, Equity, and Diversity
Accomplished library media specialists provide access, ensure equity, and embrace diversity.
Standard VIII: Ethics
Accomplished library media specialists uphold and promote professional ethics and ethical information behavior.
Standard IX: Outreach and Advocacy
Accomplished library media specialists promote the library media program through outreach and the development of advocates.
Standard X: Reflective Practice
Accomplished library media specialists engage in reflective practice to improve student learning.
SCHOOL LIBRARY RESEARCH
Volume 15, 2012 Approved April 19, 2012 ISSN: 2165-1019
Melissa P. Johnston, Assistant Professor at the School of Library and Information Studies, College of Communication & Information Sciences, University of Alabama Tuscaloosa, AL
The highly technological environment of 21st-century schools has significantly redefined the role of school librarians by presenting the opportunity to assume leadership through technology integration. Despite the abundance of literature that has suggested the need for and the importance of school librarians to be a proactive leaders in technology integration, this role is one that has been ignored in the research arena and left undefined for school administrators, teachers, and the school librarians themselves, leading to uncertainty concerning how school librarians enact this role in practice. This research, based on distributed-leadership theory, investigates current practice of accomplished school librarians to identify what factors are enabling some to thrive as technology integration leaders and what factors are hindering others. This report of the results includes the initial identification and categorization of the enablers and barriers experienced by school librarians in enacting a leadership role in technology integration, a discussion of implications for the profession, and areas of future research.
<BODY OF RESEARCH>
The primary implication of this research is the identification of the enablers and barriers that can facilitate and constrain accomplished school librarians’ involvement in technology-integration leadership. The ambiguity surrounding the technology-integration leadership role has resulted in school librarians who are uncertain how to perform this role in practice. This research informs practice by providing support for school librarians by identifying factors that will enable enactment and by identifying barriers that must be overcome to achieve this vital role in practice. These findings are useful to furthering the understanding of this role for practicing school librarians who seek to enact or expand their leadership role in technology; the findings also serve as a foundation on which to build strategies that can be implemented in practice.
This identification of what facilitates or constrains accomplished school librarians’ technology-integration leadership provides for many areas of future research. This research to investigate the enablers and barriers experienced by school librarians, affecting their ability to enact a leadership role, should be replicated with a broader population to include all certified school librarians nationwide, thereby expanding the population studied; replication with a larger sample would serve as comparison research and contribute to the reliability of the new instrument used in this study, as well as the newly created framework resulting from this study.
Future research should also allow for a mixed-method design that would include participant interviews as follow-up to the survey data collection; these interviews would allow researchers to delve further into the experiences of practicing school librarians, and in the process, develop a more nuanced understanding of what facilitates or constrains technology-integration leadership.
Several of the enablers and barriers identified in this study require further investigations. The competitive relationship with instructional technologists emerged as one of the most frequently noted barriers, and further research examining the roles of school librarians and instructional technologists is needed to determine responsibilities, overlap, effectiveness, role clarification, and collaboration opportunities. Respondents also identified as an enabler serving in a dual role as both the school librarian and the instructional technologist. This is yet another emerging role that needs clarification and definition. Research that examines the roles of the school librarian, the instructional technologist, and/or school librarians serving in a dual role may provide important insights to support future role designations.
Another enabler, professional organizations, needs further research to examine exactly which professional organizations respondents are referring to and which they find most beneficial. The importance of professional organizations is evident in the frequency with which they were named as an enabler and activities of professional organizations such as conferences, workshops, and journals were also identified as professional development. Very little research has examined school librarians’ membership in professional organizations; exploration of possible associations between active participation in professional organizations, relationships with colleagues, professional development, expertise, and leadership enactment would yield useful insights that could inform practice, and guide officers and staff of professional organizations as they serve their members.
This study reveals that the support of principals and teachers is vital in facilitating school librarians’ technology-integration leadership. Further research needs to be conducted to examine relationships between school librarians and other members of their school communities in the context of technology integration. Because of their overarching influence, further investigation of principals’ actions and attitudes as enablers and barriers would be particularly useful. This survey could be adapted for populations of principals and teachers to gain insight into their perceptions of school librarians as technology-integration leaders.
This research serves as the initial identification of enablers and barriers that school librarians experience when attempting to enact leadership role in technology integration and has implications of interest to the school library profession. The most frequently occurring enablers facilitating school librarians’ technology integration leadership are a supportive principal, opportunities for a leadership role and responsibilities, the desire to make a difference for students and teachers, professional development opportunities, and a sense of obligation to get involved. While the barriers identified most frequently as constraining technology integration leadership are time, exclusion from a leadership role and responsibilities, lack of funding, and inadequate staffing. Many enablers unique to school librarians emerged, such as support from professional organizations, support from district library administrators, serving in a dual role as school librarian and technology specialist, and technology expertise. While barriers identified by school librarians that differ from those identified by teacher leaders include competitive relationships with instructional technologists, lack of support at the district level from a library administrator, and lack of technology expertise. The findings from this research contribute to the understanding of this role, propose a framework for future inquiry, and serve as a foundation on which to build research-based strategies to support practicing school librarians seeking to overcome barriers, and conversely, to highlight those factors that enable this vital role to be achieved in practice.